Kingdom of Heaven 1174-1192 & the Battle for Jerusalem



Main Christian Characters of the period

Baldwin IV, 1161-1185. King of Jerusalem 1174-1185, Warrior King who fought in many battles but died of leprosy.

Baldwin V child, King of Jerusalem 1185-1186, died of leprosy shortly after becoming King.

Sybilla, Sister of Baldwin IV,  Mother of Baldwin V and Queen of Jerusalem 1186-1187

Guy De Lusignan, Husband to Sybilla, King of Jerusalem1186-1192, King of Cyprus 1192-1194

Richard I of England, lands at Acre on June 8th 1191 and sails for England in October 1192.

Henry II of Champagne or Henry I of Jerusalem. King of Jerusalem from 1192-1197. One of Philip II Lieutenants but change allegiance to Richard I after Acre.

King Philip II of France, disliked being in Outremer and sailed home in July 1191 just a few months after arriving.

 Leopold V  Duke of Austria 1157-1194. Later King of Austria. Was at the siege of Acre 1191.

Reynald of Chatillion, Templar and owner of Kerak. A religious extremist, killed after being captures at Hattin.

Count Raymond of Tripoli, Friendly with Saladin, wanted a multi-racial Jerusalem living in peace, allowed to escape from Hattin but died a year later.

Conrad of Montferrat, fled to Tyre after Hattin. He took command defending the city and saved it from Saladin's army.

Balian d'Ibelin, Escaped from Hattin then Surrendered Jerusalem to Saladin after negotiating terms.1140-1193. Ibelin is a castle and estate between Jaffa and Ascalon, built to subdue Muslim raids from Egypt and Ascalon.

Master of the Templers,  Gerard de Ridefort ////-1189

Master of the Hospitallers, Roger de Moulins 1177-1187, Killed at Cresson Springs by a lance wound.

Main Participating Countries

Jerusalem, England, France, Germany, Italy, Hungry, Denmark, Sicily, Burgundy, Templers, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights.

Uniforms and Weapons of the Different Contingents

Uniform colours were not generally recorded during this period and so little is known. There are details of knights shield designs but little information of their surcoats. Armour was all mail(Hauberk) like the type worn at Hastings in 1066. Helmets were of Norman style, however enclosed helmets were being used. Shields were generally kite shaped but varied in size. Some are recorded as being used like a pavise. Made of wood with a leather covering, they were painted according to nationality and contingent. The weapons used were generally imported from Europe but eastern weapons and armour were used. Some western Knights were described as being Arabised in appearance, wearing Arab clothing, headwear and sometimes armour. The Knights used a heavy lance as their primary weapon, but could also carried a sword, mace, club or hammer. The heavy lance could have been painted especially when imported from Europe but I haven't found any reference to it other then being heavier then the Ayyubid lances. The horses were unarmoured but many Knights, especially the Military Orders used cloth covers(Housing) in the colour of their Order or family heraldry. The housing could also be padded to give the horse extra protection. King Richard I wore a red surcoat and had a red housing, both having two yellow rampant lions standing on their hind legs facing each other. The Order Knights were provided with the best equipment money could buy, especially the Templers who became extremely rich through their trading and money lending. It's possible the Templar Knights even carried crossbows. The Knights nearly always fought mounted but could when needed fight on foot. At Hattin and Jaffa Knights fought dismounted usually supporting the spearmen.

The Infantry were either spearmen or missile troops. They would all have worn a hauberk if possible, if not then a heavily quilted jacket with a simple steel helmet sometimes painted. Surcoats were also worn and spearmen carried large wooden kite shields. Missile troops would have been archers or crossbows, with crossbows being used extensively by the end of this period. While bows needed upper-body strength and years of practice, anyone could use a crossbow. Women would help defend the city walls by firing crossbows. The infantry would also have carried a hand weapon such as a sword or long dagger. The belts and straps would generally be of varying shades of brown or black leather. The shields were decorated in the style of the contingent they belong too. Templar spearmen would have a white shield with a red cross, European shields could have symmetrical patterns or animals and followed the patterns of the country they came from.     




Kingdom Of Jerusalem

The whole of Outremer controlled from Jerusalem could muster about 30,000 soldiers. These included 1500 Knights, 6000 sergeants and support cavalry and 20,000 infantry. The exact numbers aren't known and varied greatly each year, Knights and mercenaries would come and go all the time hoping to make a quick fortune. Although the Christian held territory was called the Kingdom of Jerusalem, it was divided in to 4 states, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Edessa and Antioch. The King had power over the kingdom, but Tripoli, Edessa and Antioch each had their own Lords. The military orders were also given their own land and castles but ruled themselves independently from Jerusalem. Each principality was responsible for recruiting and maintaining its own army and defending its own lands. If there was a major problem then the King could request the entire army of Jerusalem be assembled. This meant each of the four regions and the military orders would gather their forces and assemble where requested. However should a Lord of one of the states not like the King he wasn't under any obligation to supply his soldiers and could refuse the Kings request. Assembling the army was generally avoided as it meant almost emptying all the castles and cities of troops, leaving them extremely vulnerable to attack. This happened in 1187 when King Guy de Lusignan gathered the whole army and got it annihilated at the battle of Hattin, leading to the loss of Jerusalem. European Kings would sometimes give money to Jerusalem to pay for mercenaries, these mercenaries would wear the colours of the King who gave the money. King Henry II of England was just one such person and the mercenaries wore the English cross of St John.

Soldiers of Jerusalem

Soldiers of Jerusalem may have worn a mid blue colour cloaks and surcoats. Surcoats and cloaks would also had the cross of Jerusalem sewn on the chest. Foot soldiers would have been either spearmen or crossbow men, the crossbows didn't carry shields. Mounted would have been knights and sergeants and carried lance, sword, mace, club and shield. The principality of Jerusalem could muster at most 1000 Knights and up to 5000 sergeants, Turcapoles and mercenaries.

Knights Templar

Templers wore all white with a red cross. They initially wore a Cappa, a long hooded cloak with sleeves but was hard to fight in. This was replaced for battle with the more manageable surcoat. The cross might have varied in style between units or commanderies. There were about 300 Templar Knights in the whole of Outremer; divided into commanderies and given different regions to control, these were supported with roughly 1000 lesser knights(Junior Brother), turcapoles and infantry. Lesser brothers would have worn brown or grey cloaks but retained the cross. The order also used spearmen and crossbow men who wore similar clothing. Despite there being only 300 Brother Knights in Outremer there were many more throughout Europe. Based in England, France, Spain as well as other countries. These Brother Knights would rotate their service, spending a year in each country, a little like soldiers today who spend time at the front and then get time in more peaceful regions. There are variations of the flag Templers carried. The main flag was divided in half, the top half all black the bottom half all white. The white part of the flag signifies kindness to Christians, the black part showing terror and darkness to their enemies. The standard bearer was called a Gonafanonier, but he didn't carry the standard himself but was carried by one of his esquires. The standard would have been escorted and protected by 10 Knights. Should the standard be lost, it's charges would be expelled from the Order. The Knights were formed into 'commanderies' It's not known how many knights were part of each unit but each Commandery may of had a minimum of 12 Brother Knights and was led by a Marshal then the commander of Knights, Gonafanonier, Master esquire and Turcopolier. Each Commandery carried a second flag which was all white with a red cross. The Knights each had a pennant attached to the top of their lance, white with a red cross. The Housing for the horses would normally be white with a variety of red crosses. It's also possible the housing was white with the top third black. Padded housing was also used giving the horse protection from distant shooting. Foot soldiers in the Order were divided into companies of 50 men and attached to each Commandery.

Knights Hospitaller

Hospitallers wore black for this period with the 8 pointed white cross. Their banner was red with a white cross. Their organisation was similar to the Templers. Red wasn't worn by the Hospitallers until about 1270. Shields were kite shaped like the Templers varying in size, black in colour with an 8 pointed cross in white. The horses would be either unarmoured or wearing housing sometimes padded. The housing could be black or white with a variety of crosses. Leather wear was made locally in Outremer usually either black or brown and kept simple. I've found no information on the colour of the lances but it's possible they were either left natural wood or painted. The orders weren't allowed to have anything ''flashy'' so I'd assume the lances would be fairly plain and if painted they would be black brown or dark red.

The Hospitallers also provided a medical corps for the army of Jerusalem. They would tend any wounded soldier that needed their help and accompanied the army on campaign, treating every imaginable injury as well as disease and sun stroke. They would erect tents as temporary hospitals and try to remove any injured soldier back to Jerusalem for better care and treatment. One Hospital in Jerusalem had 1000 beds for both sexes including pregnant women. Patients were generally well fed on pork, even chicken was made available for any Muslim patients.

Teutonic Knights:

The Teutonic Knights were few in number and had been founded in Jerusalem in 1127. Most were killed at Hattin in 1187 and the order almost eliminated before it had begun. At Acre in 1190 the order was given a new lease of life. A tent made from a ships mainsail was erected on the beach outside the city walls as their first headquarters. Some of the remnants of Barbarossa's army who had made it to Acre joined the Teutonic order which grew at a slow pace. The Order was created along the lines of the Templers with a Master and three classes of brother; Knight, Priest and Sergeant. The Knights had to be of noble birth and German blood. The Knights wore a white cloak with a black cross over a white tunic. The Sergeants wore grey and the priests wore a long white skirted version of the Knights garb. The Order also accepted women as a 4th class to work as nurses and known as half-sisters.

The Teutonic hierarchy was very similar to the Templers with their first master being called ''Hochmeister'' then a Grosskomtur, ordensmarchall, spittler, tressler or treasurer and a trapier or quarter master. Like the Templers the Teutonic soldiers were divided in to commanderies. Each Commandery contained no less than 12 brother Knights plus sergeants and mercenaries. As the order grew they obtained lands and castles in Outremer as well as Spain, Prussia, Germany, Austria, Romania, Livonia, Greece and Armenia. There was a Teutonic force at Acre in 1291 when the city was for the last time taken by the Muslim forces, each of the Teutonic Knights present were killed defending the last great Christian city in Outremer.

Other Orders:

These included the Order of St Lazarus, a very small order that treated skin disorders in Jerusalem especially Leprosy. There were only a handful of knights who wore a black robe with a green cross. Raymond III of Tripoli was an honorary Knight.

Another Order were the Knights of Our Lady of Montjoie. They took an oath to fight Saracens and were stationed on a hill castle just outside Jerusalem. Their founder was Count Rodrigo, Knight of Santiago and Spain. King Baldwin IV gave the order several towers in Ascalon to guard and watch over. Their habit was white with a red and white cross. After Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem the remnants of the Order fled to Spain and were re named the Order of Trufac.

European Contingents

When knights arrived from Europe, they brought their own armies of varying sizes. King Richard I and Philip II of France brought large numbers of men. Contingents would have included English/Anglo-Norman, French/Flemish, German, Italian, Hungarian, Danish, Frisian, Sicily and Burgundian. There was some uniformity to each contingent although knights would have worn their own family heraldry, with surcoat, shields and lances decorated in the normal European way. A rule was agreed that the top 4 contingents would wear a different colour cross for recognition purposes. England used white crosses, France red, Germans black and Flanders green. Each contingent would have carried their own flags. A national flag, a national crusader flag and all the knights, Barons and Lords would have their flags also. A crusader army on the march would have been an awe inspiring sight.

The infantry would have been either spearmen or crossbow men. The best way to describe them would be that they looked like Normans or Franks. Chainmail was common as were padded coats and helmets with nose protectors. Shields would have varied but the majority of spearmen would have used a kite shield. Although it's doubtful crossbow men used shields. The infantry shields would have had simple Norman style motifs of animals or simple patterns. The helmets were sometimes painted but many were left plain metal. The spearmen would have fought in shield walls while the crossbow men were used to keep the Muslim horse archers at a distance, skirmishing out in front or firing from the protection of being behind the spearmen.

Sieges and Siege equipment

Siege warfare was common during the crusades. Some sieges lasted years but most were fairly quick. Both the besiege and the attackers would find supplies quickly running out and many soldiers dying of disease or hunger. Both the Christian and Muslim armies used a vast amount of siege equipment. At Acre it is thought that over 300 catapults, ballista and trebuchets were used. King Richard and King Philip brought many flat pack machines from Europe and assembling them on arrival at Acre. King Richard even brought a large quantity of stone from Cyprus to fire at the castle walls as the local stone around Acre was soft limestone which didn't have the strength to do a lot of damage quickly. Greek fire was commonly used in sieges by both defender and attacker. The defender would use it to try and burn down the attackers siege weapons and the attacker could use it to try and set fire to the buildings inside the castle. Mining was another effective weapon. Tunnelling under a corner tower or section of wall could eventually bring the walls down and create a breach big enough for the attackers to assault. Other equipment would include scaling ladders and siege towers.

Biological warfare was also used. Dead bodies or dead animals were catapulted in to the besieged city, sometimes animals that had died of plague would be used or the heads of captured enemy soldiers thrown over the walls. There was little not tried during a siege and both sides would show little compassion to the other and the fighting was extremely brutal. If the city wouldn't surrender before the last assault started then both the garrison and civilian population could all be put to the sword and on many occasions were in fact massacred. When the Christians first captured Jerusalem in 1098 the whole civilian population was massacred including Muslims, Jews and Christians. The attacking army showed no mercy to anyone as they rampaged through the city looting, raping and killing all they came across.

The only real hope for the defenders was to surrender before being attacked and hope they would be shown some mercy. But even being shown mercy didn't all ways mean freedom. Many captives would be sold in to slavery and be worked to death. The lucky ones would be allowed to buy their freedom, but the price was usually quite high and most possessions would have to be sold to raise the money needed.

Training and Tactics of the Crusaders

Tactics of the European crusaders evolved from their normal western style of fighting to a more highly skilled type of warfare. Battles were more fluid and the crusaders were generally outnumbered, sometimes by 3 or 4 times their number. Their tactics were adapted and the troops trained and learnt how to fight the masses of Muslim heavy cavalry and horse archers. The army was divided into divisions with each division being led by a senior Lord. The division would form a rectangle to move. At the front would be the Templers and rear the Hospitallers changing positions during the journey. The spearmen protected by their large shields would march on the flanks, with the crossbowmen on the inside of them. In the middle of the rectangle would be the rest of the knights and cavalry plus the armies’ baggage and supplies. When Richard I army was attacked, the army would take cover behind the spearmen. The crossbow men would be formed first in two ranks behind the spearmen. They would have one man firing while the second reloads the empty crossbow. Experienced crossbow men could fire deadly volleys, killing or injuring the Muslim men and horses making them keep their distance. If the enemy got too close the spearmen could open up their ranks and the Knights would charge out driving the Muslin cavalry away. The Knights trained to work in cohesive units, while one unit charged another would be standing at the ready in support. When the first unit returns to re-order itself, the support unit could then charge if needed or charge to help the first unit should it get in to trouble.  It was important for the Knights, spearmen and crossbow men to work closely together, keep their nerves and not to allow any gaps to appear in the formation. Once the threat had passed the crusader column would continue on their march. Unfortunately there were occasions when the knights lost control and charged the Muslims regardless of their situation. This would sometimes lead to the knights’ demise, especially if they moved to far in front of the infantry.

The primary purpose of the spearmen and crossbow men was to protect the vulnerable horses. The mounted knights were the hammer of the army and it was crucial to protect them from the Muslim horse archers until the right moment to charge arrived. Crossbow men were also used for skirmishing. Kerak had a force of 300 crossbow men used to fight in the mountains around the castle. They were experienced in ambush and raid techniques. Unfortunately there was very little written about the use and organisation of crossbow men, so we know very little on how they were used and deployed during a battle.

The size of an army would vary considerably from a small raiding force of 100 cavalry to the entire army of Jerusalem of 40,000. Although very few records exist with information on the exact size and composition of the armies for the battles that took place, there is some information that gives us an idea of what a crusader army might have looked like. In the account ‘Historia Regini Hierosolymitani’ we are told that at the battle of Hattin the army of King Guy de Lusignan contained: 1,000 Knights, 1,200 mercenary knights, 7,000 mercenary infantry, 4,000 turcopoles and 25,000 other infantry. These numbers include the contingents from the Templers and Hospitallers and represent the whole army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Yet other battles contained 500 knights and sergeants and 1000 infantry. Even during cattle raids it was important for the knights, spearmen and crossbow men to work together.

Training of a Templar or Hospitaller brother concerned itself with tactics to defeat the Muslims. Training to be a knight was little indulged, recruitment to the orders insisted on the individual already being trained and competent in handling weapons and combat. There was also little training in monastic beliefs. Soldiers in Outremer were religiously considered the poor relatives of European based brothers.

Richards Navy:

Richard 1st Gathered a large fleet to sail him to Outremer. He gathered 3 squadrons; English, Angevin/Norman/Breton and Poitevin/Gascon. The English Squadron contained 33 ships and was commanded by Gerard de la Barthe, Norman 63 ships commanded by Robert IV de Sable and Poitevin 30 ships commanded by William de Forz. There was a mix of war Galleys and transport ships with some of the war galleys put in fast attack squads. It's possible the total number of people transported included 5000 knights, 15,000 Foot soldiers and about 5000 non combatants. The English Squadron sailed from Southampton and cost Richard £5000 for the hire of the ships and their crew. Some of the more senior knights made their own way to Acre at their own expense, looking for more comfortable accommodation on less crowded vessels. Robert III Earl of Leicester was making his own way when he died in Greece before reaching Acre.

Conflict between the Orders:

Although all the Military Orders generally got along there was some conflict between them. They would argue over money, holdings and even the right to wear the white habit. In 1201 this simmering boiled over and open conflict occurred over the backing of Armenian heirs. The Templers supported Bohemond of Tripoli, The Hospitallers and Teutonic's supporting the other side. For 20 years open hostilities erupted between the factions with cattle raids and ambushes frequently occurring in the Taurus mountains. In 1216 half Armenian Raymond-Ruben backed by the Hospitallers captured Antioch from the Templers and installed a Hospitaller garrison. In 1221 the Pope was able to reconcile both factions and Hostilities ceased. It wasn't the first time violence had occurred between the two main orders. In 1170 and 1197 the Templers and Hospitallers had come to blows over land in Tripoli and members would brawl in the streets when they came across each other.

A description of the Ayyubids at Hattin by Geoffrey de Vinsauf

 “There followed after them an infernal race of men; of black colour, and bearing a suitable appellation, expressive of their blackness. With them also were the Saracens, who live in the desert, called Bedouins: they are a savage race of men, blacker than soot; they fight on foot and carry a bow, quiver, and round shield, and are a light and active race.” (Geoffrey de Vinsauf)

 “Beyond them might be seen the well-arranged phalanxes of the Turks, with ensigns fixed to their lances, and standards and banners of separate distinctions. Their army was divided into troops, and the troops into companies; and their numbers seemed to exceed twenty thousand. They came on with irresistible charge, on horses swifter than eagles, and urged on like lightning to attack our men; and as they advanced, they raised a cloud of dust, so that the sky was darkened. In front came certain of their admirals, as it was their duty, with clarions and trumpets; some had horns, others had pipes and timbrels, gongs, cymbals, and other instruments, producing a horrible noise and clamour. The earth vibrated from the loud and discordant sounds, so that the crash of thunder could not be heard amidst the tumultuous noise of horns and trumpets.” (Geoffrey de Vinsauf)

 “An admiral, by name Tekedmus, a kinsman of the sultan, having a banner with a remarkable device; namely, that of a pair of breeches carved thereon” (Geoffrey de Vinsauf)

 “the household troops of Saladin, each of whose companies bore a yellow banner with pennons of a different colour.” (Geoffrey de Vinsauf)

 “how useful to us on that day were our arbalesters and bowmen, who closed the extremities of the lines, and did their best to repel the obstinate Turks” (Geoffrey de Vinsauf)

List of Major Events of the Period

Battle or Siege Date Notes
Baldwin IV Crowned King of Jerusalem 1174
Saladin becomes Sultan of Egypt 1174 This was the beginning of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Hama 1175 Hama was taken from the Zengids by Saladin.
Siege of Harim, Syria 1177 Raymond III of Tripoli and Bohemund III of Antioch joined with Philip of Alsace and laid siege against Harim castle in Syria.
Mount Gisard November 25th 1177 Saladin was marching his army towards Jerusalem. Thinking he was safe, he allowed his army to spread out. Baldwin IV attacked and defeated the surprised Muslim Army.
Tell Jezer, Ramla 1177 375 Templers surprised Saladin commanding a small force. Saladin tried to form his men up but the Templers moved to swiftly and routed the Muslims. Saladin was lucky to escape after mounting a camel.
Hims 1178 Saladin was camped beneath the walls of Hims. Here he skirmished with the crusaders for a few days without any major encounter.
Hama 1178 At Hama Saladin won a victory and captured many prisoners. All the prisoners were executed.
Marj'Ayyun June 10th 1178 an Ayyubid army commanded by Saladin defeated a Crusader army led by King Baldwin IV.
Banias 1179 While leading a cattle raid, Baldwin IV was surprised by Farrukh Shah (Saladin’s Nephew). The Christian forces were routed.
Latani River 1179 Responding to cavalry raids, Baldwin IV led a force to remove the threat. This he did but then ran in to Saladin’s main army and was routed.
Siege at Jacobs Ford August 23rd
Baldwin IV was trying to build a castle at the strategic river crossing, Jacobs ford 100 miles north of Jerusalem. Saladin lay siege to the part built castle. Baldwin IV set out from Jerusalem with reinforcements but arrived too late and turned around. 1500 Christian soldiers were lost and the castle destroyed.
Quneitra 1179 Baldwin led a force to Quneitra, east of the Golan Heights. Expecting to raid cattle, he was surprised by an Ayyubid army led by Farrukh-Shah and soundly beaten.
Naval raid by Reynald de Chatillon to Red sea. 1182 He attacks coastal towns and villages but achieves no long term goals.
Siege of Christian Habis Jaldak in the  Latin Principality of Galilee 1182 Saladin's nephew, Farrukh Shah raided Galilee. Before his return to Damascus he captured the Frankish castle and the few Franks defending it
Conquest of Mesopotamian hinterland May 1182 Saladin takes half the Ayyubid army and conquers Mesopotamia including Aleppo and Edessa. This campaign was fought by the Ayyubids against a mix of people including Mamlukes, Abbasids, Almohads and Bedouins.
Siege of Christian Kerak 1183 The siege failed

Ayyubids raid in force attacking Zir’in, Forbelet, Mount Tabor

1183 The Muslim army was too big to stop, but these raids led to the battle of Al-Fule.
Al-Fule 1183 A week long battle ends in the retreat of Saladin’s army.
siege of Christian Kerak 1184 The siege failed
Death of Baldwin IV 16th March 1185  
Baldwin V  King of Jerusalem 1185 Although crowned as co-ruler in November 1183, he became King in 1185. He was the son of Sibylla and died of leprosy soon after becoming sole Regent.
Reynald de Chattlion attacks several Muslim caravans. 1185 Legend says Saladin’s sister was on one of the caravans. There is conflicting evidence to show she wasn’t there.
Sibylla and Guy de Lusignan Crowned Queen and King of Jerusalem. 1186 Guy and Sibylla had married in 1180, both were then crowned together in 1186. Sibylla died in October 1190. Guy retained the title King of Jerusalem .
Cresson Springs May 1st 1187 Crusaders from Kerak are ambushed and killed
Battle of the Horns of Hattin July 4th 1187 Army of Jerusalem destroyed, King Guy captured and Raynald captured then executed.
Siege of Christian Jerusalem 1187 Jerusalem surrenders to Saladin after successful negotiations by Balian of Ibelin.
Saladin lays siege and captures all the remaining Christian land except Tyre 1187 With Jerusalem’s army destroyed, most cities and castles surrendered without a fight as there are no soldiers to defend them.
Siege of  Christian Tyre 1187 Saladin failed to successfully siege Tyre.
Pope Gregory dies 1187 He died of a broken heart after hearing about the loss of Jerusalem.
Frederick Barbarossa starts Crusade 1189 He sets out from Germany with a huge army, Saladin is worried on hearing the news.
Siege of Muslim Acre 1189 Guy de Lusignan raises a new army and tries to re-capture Acre.
Great battle of Acre 1189 Saladin beats Guy, but fails to break the siege.
Barbarossa dies crossing a river 1190 His death is a huge blow. His army breaks up, most going home but part of the army continues on the Acre.
Acre 1190 Saladin beats Guy, but fails to break the siege.
Sack of Massina 1190 Richard I sacks Massina, Sicily.  owned by Tancred.
Battle of Cyprus May 6th 1191 Richard captures Cyprus on his way to Outremer.
Richard I and Philip II Reach Outremer, landing at Acre. May & June 1191 Philip arrived May 20th before Richard as Richard sailed to Cyprus first. Richard Landed on the 8th June.
Siege of Muslim Acre 1189-1191 Acre surrenders after Guy receives help from Richard I and Philip II of France. Acre becomes the new Capital of Jerusalem.
Leopold V leaves for home 1191 At Acre Leopold's flag was thrown from the city walls at Richard I request, Leopold enraged went home. Richard I would regret this action at a later date.
Philip II of France sails home 31st July 1191 Quarrels with Richard I led to Philip II sailing back home to France, Leaving Richard as sole commander of all Crusader forces.
Arsouf September 7th 1191 Richard beats Saladin in an epic battle on the coast road to Jaffa.
Siege of Muslim Ascalon 1191 Richards takes Ascalon instead of heading straight for Jerusalem.
Skirmish at Muslim Darum 1192 Richard I rescues 12,000 Christians being taken to Darum castle.
Siege of Muslim Darum 1192 Without the French, Richard I lay siege and captured the castle. The banner of Stephen de Longchamp was the first raised above the walls, second belonging to the Earl of Leicester.
Skirmish near Jerusalem 1192 A Frankish supply caravan was ambushed coming from Jaffa. After a hard fight the 200 Muslim cavalry were beaten off after the Earl of Leicester came to the rescue.
Battle for the caravans 1192 While at Betenoble deciding on attacking Jerusalem, Richard is informed about a huge Muslim supply caravan coming from Babylon. With 500 Knights and sergeants and 1000 infantry they attacked and captured the caravan, killing over 1700 Muslim cavalry and many more infantry. Their prize included 4700 camels.
Siege of Christian Jaffa July 1192 Saladin lays siege and captures most of the city. Richard being at Acre gathers a small force of about 2200 men and sails down the coast to successfully relieve the city.
Jaffa August 1192 Richard being heavily outnumbered, fights off numerous Muslim attacks after camping outside the walls of Jaffa. Forming a shield wall, the crusaders fought off wave after wave of cavalry charges. Richards crossbows played a pivotal role from behind the spearmen.
Peace agreed between Richard I and Saladin September 1192 Richard sets sail for England in October 1192. He's captures and imprisoned at Durnstein in Austria until a large ransom is paid in 1194. End of 3rd Crusade.
Death of Saladin March 4th 1193 Died of a fever and is buried in a mausoleum in Damascus Syria.
Death of Richard I April 6th 1199 Richard died after fighting in France. He was shot with a crossbow between his neck and shoulder on 25th March. He died of gangrene 2 weeks later.
Philip II dies peacefully July 14th 1223


Knights of the Crusades 1174-1192

Some Knights might be in the wrong section as information is hard to find on names and Nationalities. Knights could also change allegiance and fight with contingents of a different nationality. 

English/Anglo Norman:  Richard I, Baldwin of Exeter, Hugh of Poitou (Richards Marshal), Bishop of Salisbury, John Fitz-Luke, earl of Leicester, Hugh de Gurnay, William de Borriz, Walkin do Ferrars, Roger de Toony, James d’Avennes, Robert count of Druell, the bishop of Beauvais, and William des Barres, William de Pratelles (claimed to be Richard I so the king could escape), William de Cagen, Robert de Newbury, Henry Fitz-Nicholas, Andrew de Chamgui(ran a lance through a Turkish leader), Henry de Gray, Peter do Pratelles, Seguin Borret, Peter of Gascony, Henry le Tyois (Richards standard bearer), Bartholomew de Mortimer, Ralph de Mauleon, Andrew de Chavegui, Gerald do Finival, Roger de Sacy, William de l’Etang, Hugh de Villeneuve, Geoffrey de la Celle, William de Verdun, Betrand de Verdun, Gerard de Bethune, Thomas Basset, Robert de Turnham, William de Tournebu, William des Roches, Gilbert Malemains, Henry de Grey.

French/ Flemish: Philip II, Henry I Count of Bar,  Theobald V of Blois,  Stephen I of Sancerre, Henry II of Champagne, Robert II of Dreux, Ralph of Clermont, John of Fontigny, Alain of Saint-Valéry, James of Avesnes,  William de Bartis, Henry count of Champagne, Stephen de Longchamp.

German:  Margrave Louis III, Otto I of Guelders, James de Avennes, Andrew de Chamgui, Otho de Pransinges,

Outremer: Baldwin IV, Guy de Lusignan, Reynald of Chatillion,Count Raymond of Tripoli,Conrad of Montferrat,(Gerard de Ridefort-grand master of the Templers) Knights Templar, Knights Hospitallers, Knights Teutonic, (Fra' Garnier de Nablus-grand master Hospitallers), (Master of the Hospitallers-Roger de Moulins)

Both of the main military orders each kept roughly 300 knights in Outremer. The smaller orders in Outremer like the Teutonic might have had as few as 50 knights present at any one time.

Italians: Pisans, Genoese,

Hungarian: Count of Hungry,



Sicily:  William II of Sicily(200 knights),

Burgundy: Hugh III of Burgundy,


    A medieval market in Jaffa


Copyright Jonspaintingservice 2023

Licensed 3D Printing. A number of ranges will be available where i have established licenses from the designers. The figures will be available in different scales. The ranges will be limited to start with but will include Napoleonic Austrian, French and British. Medieval and Ancient Biblical. Figures will be printed to order.
            3D Printed Miniatures Sale Page

Historical Miniature Figure Painter & 3D Printing
PayPal Logo

Pay With PayPal

Services Available


Contact us

Kingdom of Heaven

Historical site Visits

Waterloo 2015

Ardennes Visit

Normandy Visit

HMS Victory/Mary Rose

Miniatures for Sale

3D Printed Miniatures

The Man Cave. Comes with Painting Studio.